UNST 220: Understanding Communities
Dr. Martha J. Bianco

Module III Lecture Guide
Part I


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Community, Identity, and Place versus Space

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I.                  Understanding Place and Space through the Lens of Social Science


A.        Population Shifts Affecting Community in the 20th & 21st Centuries

(Review maps from Module II, Lecture Guide 4: http://www.marthabianco.com/Courses/Cities/Module-II/Lecgde2-4.html)

1.         Urbanization

2.         Decentralization

3.         Frost Belt / Rustbelt to Sunbelt


B.               From Metropolitan Area to Your Neighborhood Block:  Understanding Census Terminology


Census Definitions (See Census Hierarchy Chart)



1.         Regions and Divisions

*  There are four regions and each has 2-3 divisions.

2.         States

*  Each division consists of 3-9 states

3.         Counties

*  Are the primary legal entity below the state level

4.       Places

*  Include incorporated places such as cities, towns, villages, and boroughs, as well as “census designated places” that are unincorporated.

a.      Urbanized Areas (UAs) have pops of at least 50,000 and include a central city and a densely populated urban fringe.

b.      Urban places outside of Urban Areas is a “Place” with at least 2,500

c.      Rural places are places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants


*         Metropolitan Areas

1.                 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs)

2.                 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs)

3.                 Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAs

* Central city: the largest city in each MSA or CMSA


Explore these census concepts at http://factfinder.census.gov/


C.      City Systems Models


1.         Concentric Zone Theory (Ernest Burgess and Robert Park, 1920s University of Chicago School of Sociology – pioneers of urban studies)



a.  Zone I:               business and civic center

b.  Zone II:              Zone-In-Transition: residential deterioration, taken over by business and industry

c.  Zone III:              immigrant housing (mostly multifamily)

d.  Zone IV:             middle class houses

e.  Zone V:              bedroom suburbs


*           Pros

*           Cons



2.         Homer Hoyt's Sectoral Model (1930s)


a.      Zone A:  CBD

b.      Zone B1:  Zone of Transition (“Twilight Zone”)

c.      Zone B2:  Zone of Transition: Residential

d.      Zone C:  “Council Estates”

e.      Zone D:  Commuter Zone (suburbs)

f.        Zone E:  Countryside Estates



3.         Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman's Multiple Nuclei Model of 1945


*   What factors cause the development of multiple nuclei?


*   Types of nuclei:



4.         Central Place Theory (German geographer Walter Christaller, 1960s)


*   central place and hinterland

*   range and threshold

*  upper limit

*  hexagon

*  connection of hexagons of central places

*  visual conceptualization of Central Place Theory




5.         Criticisms of these models


D.      The Global City Model


A.        Defining the Global City



B.        Steps in Globalization Process:



C.        Shared Elements in the Global Community

See this site called “The Face of Tomorrow: The Human Face of Globalization


D.        Global City Categories (as determined by the GaWC – Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network)

See this interactive map of the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma World Cities, prepared by the GaWC.


Alpha / Full-Service / Prime / First-Tier Cities 


                                                            1.      London

                                                            2.      Paris

                                                            3.      New York

                                                            4.      Tokyo

                                                            5.      Chicago

                                                            6.      Frankfurt

                                                            7.      Hong Kong

                                                            8.      Los Angeles

                                                            9.      Milan

                                                       10.      Singapore


Beta / Major/ Secondary / Second-Tier Cities


                                                       11.      San Francisco

                                                       12.      Sydney

                                                       13.      Toronto

                                                       14.      Zurich

                                                       15.      Brussels

                                                       16.      Madrid

                                                       17.      Mexico Cit

                                                       18.      Sao Paulo

                                                       19.      Moscow

                                                       20.      Seoul


Gamma / Minor / Tertiary / Third-Tier Cities


                                                       21.      Amsterdam, Boston, Caracas, Dallas, Dusseldorf, Geneva, Houston, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Melbourne, Osaka, Prague, Santiago, Taipei, Washington

                                                       22.      Bangkok, Beijing, Montreal, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw

                                                       23.      Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Budapest, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich, Shanghai


Strong evidence of becoming global cities:


Athens, Auckland, Dublin, Helsinki, Luxembourg, Lyon, Mumbai, New Delhi, Philadelphia, Rio de Janeiro, Tel Aviv, Vienna


Some Evidence:


Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Birmingham, Bogota, Bratislava, Brisbane, Bucharest, Cairo, Cleveland, Cologne, Detroit, Dubai, Ho Chi Minh City, Kiev, Lima, Lisbon, Manchester, Montevideo, Oslo, Rotterdam, Riyadh, Seattle, Stuttgart, The Hague, Vancouver


Minimal Evidence:


Adelaide, Antwerp, Arhus, Baltimore, Bangalore, Bologna, Brazilia, Calgary, Cape Town, Colombo, Columbus, Dresden, Edinburgh, Genoa, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Kansas City, Leeds, Lille, Marseille, Richmond, St Petersburg, Tashkent, Tehran, Tijuana, Turin, Utrecht, Wellington



E.        Impacts of Global Cities on Community


Think about these questions:


1.      How will globalization of the economy affect urban settlement patterns?

2.      Will metropolitan areas continue to expand?

3.      Will first-tier cities continue to grow, or will people move away from them to second- and third-tier cities, and even to smaller communities?

4.      Will the “global city” help break down ethnic and cultural barriers or make them worse?



Optional Online Readings and Experiences to Explore for Part I of Module IIII:


Beaverstock, J.V., R.G. Smith, and P.J. Taylor. “A Roster of World Cities.” Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network.  Research Bulletin 5. 1999. <http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb5.html> .

“Contested Narrative: The Contest over Who and What to Believe.” Globalization Research Center. 2002. <http://www.earthwindow.com/grc2/narrative>.

Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network. < http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/index.html> .

Huckle, John. “Manuel Castells on the Network Society.” Tide~: Teachers in Development Education.<http://www.tidec.org/geovisions/Castells.html> .

Watch this 30-minute film about Global Popular Culture: What are the sounds and sights of an emerging global culture? From World Cup soccer to Coca Cola, modern icons reflect the intertwined cultural, political, and commercial dimensions of globalization. This unit listens to and looks at the music and images of global production and consumption from reggae to the Olympics. .

Watch this 30-minute film about Globalization and Economics: How have the forces of globalization shaped the modern world? This unit travels from the Soviet Union to Sri Lanka and Chile to study the role of technology and the impact of economic and political changes wrought by globalization. .


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