UNST 220 Understanding Communities

Dr. Martha J. Bianco


Module II Lecture Guide

Part III


The Rich Just Keep Getting Richer


Click here to go to Part I, Part II, or Part IV.


II.    Income Inequality:       A Dual Nation


B. Changing conditions affecting class conditions in the industrialized city   

1.                              Feudalism  


Watch this video about the feudal order.


2.                              Mercantilism and development of merchant class (1500s), living in cities (bourgs) = bourgeoisie


3.                              Protoindustrial era

a.    small-scale factory production

b.   division of labor

c.    separation of work and home

4.                              Economic changes

a.   agricultural crises

b.   gap between rural and urban growth

c.    spread of profound poverty

d.  Enclosure Movement (1600s)


5.                             Industrial Revolution & technological changes in the means of production (1700-1900)


See this Learning Unit on the Industrial Revolution.



a.                  Improvement in agricultural methods (due to restrictions from Enclosure Movement)

b.                  Improvements in textile production

c.                   Population increases

d.                 Energy revolution

e.                  Large capital-owning financiers

f.                    End of slavery

g.                  Increased production-consumption cycle



a.                  Growth of middle class

b.                  Growth of secondary economic sector / decline of primary sector

c.                   Decline of cottage industry

d.                 Increased division of labor

e.                  Increased separation of work and home

f.                    Changing expectations for women

g.                  Increasing gaps between “haves” and “have-nots”

h.                  Migration, urbanization, transience

i.                    Changing ideas about poverty


The Seven Ms:

1.      Minds (vision, ideas, willingness to take risks)

2.      Manpower (plentiful labor)

3.      Managers (“scientific” business methods and managerial leadership

4.      Materials (coal, iron, etc.)

5.      Money (capital – result of conquest & trade))

6.      Markets (result of exploration & colonialism)

7.      Modes of transportation (rails, shipping, roads)


A Study in Contrasts....


Photo of coal miner’s family, by Jacob Riis, around 1890

John D. Rockefeller, owner of Standard Oil Co., around 1872.

Click here for sketches and photographs by Jacob Riis, in his How the Other Half Lives.

Ø      Watch these videos about the industrial revolution:

*  The Industrial Revolution

*  The Industrial World

*  The Rise of Capitalism

6.                  The End of the 19th Century 


Ø Watch these videos about the political, economic, and social dynamics at the end of the 19th century:

*   A New Public

*   Fin de Siècle



Click to go to Part IV

or go to:

Module II, Part I
Module II, Part II
Module II, Part IV
Lecture Guides Home Page
Class Syllabus


© Martha J. Bianco, Ph.D.